What you’ll learn:
Is the coronavirus outbreak over hyped or is the recent cancellation of the Inspired Home Show Chicago 2020 (IHS) and other trade shows warranted? On today’s episode, we bring on infectious disease specialist Vishal Khairnar to talk us through the ins-and-outs of the global coronavirus outbreak. Khairnar explains the R naught of the virus and gives us more precautionary measures to implement as businessowners, besides basic hand washing. Plus, our guest answer uncommon, but important questions we all want to know, like can our dog or cat get infected with coronavirus? Will there be a second outbreak of COVID-19?
About our guest:
Vishal Khairnar is a Research Scientist with an expertise in Immunology and Cancer biology with respect to infectious diseases, viruses (LCMV, VSV, Influenza), bacteria (Listeria, Pseudomonas), immunotherapy, leukemia and lymphoma. Khairnar is the fellow of Leukemia and Lymphoma Society and Young Investigator Awardee. He is a highly skilled researcher with 9+ years of experience in immunology research with 15 high impact papers and 5 conference abstracts.
Key takeaways from this episode:
- History of the coronaviruses: what is unique about it and what is known—3:08
- How did coronavirus start? Its transfer from an animal in Wuhan, China to humans in the US—6:00
- What does R naught mean? Is the coronavirus more contagious than Ebola?—7:30
- Coronavirus cure: vaccine timeline & updates on FDA approved clinical trials by Moderna, Johnson and Johnson, Gilead and other pharmaceutical companies—11:23
- How coronavirus spreads in the body & is similar in transmission to the influenza virus—15:00
- Can your dog or home pet catch coronavirus?—19:35
- The cause of death: is the virus the direct cause or is it a secondary bacterial infection in the lungs?—21:03
- Influenza virus versus the coronavirus (COVID-19)—26:48
- How likely will COVID-19 mutate and come back for a second outbreak?—33:19
- Why decontamination of surfaces is important, especially during winter season—33:56
- Public hysteria or serious health concern? Khairnar tells us if the trade show and travel cancellations are justified—38:37
Speaker 1: Welcome to the Page One Podcast, a weekly podcast featuring a variety of guests and thought leaders on topics ranging from channel strategies to tariffs, influenza marketing, best in class product launches, and all the details about how to accelerate your eCommerce sales with the Big-Box Retailers or what we call eCommerce. Now here’s your host, Luke Peters.
Luke Peters: Thanks for joining us on the page one podcast. I am your host, Luke Peters, and this is the podcast where I bring you the best and brightest leaders to share consumer product sales and marketing strategies that will help you grow your business. But in this episode, we have another special episode on the Coronavirus and I’m thrilled to have a molecular and cellular immunology PhD. Vishal Khairnar on the episode. Thanks for joining us, Vishal.
Vishal Khairnar: Yeah, thank you Luke for inviting me, sort of pleasure to be on your show.
Luke Peters: Great. And a quick bio for Vishal. Vishal is a research scientist expertise in immunology and cancer biology with respect to infectious disease, viruses, including things like influenza, and listeria and different pneumonias, expertise in immunotherapy, leukemia, lymphoma. He’s a fellow at the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society, a young investigator award winner. He’s a highly skilled researcher with nine years of experience in immunology research with 15 high impact papers and five conference abstracts. And again, PhD in molecular and cellular immunology. Sorry, a lot of big words here, Vishal, but really a pleasure to have you on the page one podcast talking again about the Coronavirus and I know it’s current news and just to let you know, Vishal, in our industry we have something, a big show called the Houseware Show, the International Houseware Show. It’s in Chicago, it was going to happen around March 13th or 14th and it was canceled.
Luke Peters: So there have been a lot of big trade show cancellations. Our audience is really familiar with that one, which kind of rocked our industry surprising because there’s so few cases here in America right now, but everybody is taking the utmost caution to make sure that this thing doesn’t spread like it has elsewhere in the world. So that’s why it’s important to our listeners. I thought that’d be important for you to know. And after that introduction, why don’t we just put down some questions that I thought would be interesting in there, for the listeners, you guys listening this, this will be interesting from the point of really learning more details about this virus. Because a lot of the numbers are going to be all over the news and the location of the virus and how to… washing your hands with soap and all of those common sense things. So hopefully we’re going to talk about some subjects that are a little less commonly talked about.
Luke Peters: And so why don’t we start with this first question, which is the origin of this virus, how did it mutate? It sounds like patient zero. We’ve been hearing different things and I’ve read that patient zero may not have been at the animal market in Wuhan, I know we don’t know the final answers here, but any thoughts on how this virus could have mutated from an animal to a human host?
Vishal Khairnar: Yes, sure. So I would basically do a little bit background information about this virus and why it is a novel, it’s called a novel coronavirus. So the coronaviruses are different and kind of different virus types and subtypes as well. And we have identified the first coronavirus in 1960s. And some members of this family have since been identified, including very famous top coronavirus, which was in 2000s most coronavirus in 2012. And now it’s called first CoV-2 which we call coronavirus-19 which is emerging from Wuhan which is in Hubei province of China. So it was first identified in Wuhan, that’s why it’s called COVID-19 Wuhan coronavirus and the initial observations of where people develop pneumonia without a clear cause and for these existing vaccines or treatments will not affect you.
Vishal Khairnar: And little bit history about this virus is that, what we know from the researchers who used an analysis for the protein coat covered by new coronavirus and complete to putting clothes from coronaviruses found in different animals who was like bats, snakes, man is bad, so humans and surprisingly they found that the protein coat of this CoV-2 are more similar to those in snakes and the theory or the hypothesis is the snakes offered from back in Lyon and reports indicate that snakes were sold in the local seafood market in Wuhan and I think the possibility that COVID-19 might have jumped from the host species past the snake and then to human. However the virus could add up to both cold blooded and warm blooded. Of course, it meant some mystery and also the spread of the virus to snakes or bats is not backed up by scientific studies. So far we decided to have a hypothesis and just the assumption but we don’t know exact source of virus but definitely it emerged from the seafood market in Wuhan and that’s what we know for sure.
Luke Peters: Great. Thanks for that. Now my wife is going to be really worried because my son just got a new snake. So it’s funny, I’m just kidding. But that’s so interesting that it’s similar, the coat protein is similar to that of a snake and it’s cold blooded. And I was always thinking that it would be hard for any bacteria or virus that was living in a cold blooded organism to jump to a warm blooded organism but it sounds like those types of things happen.
Vishal Khairnar: Yes. But these are just assumptions and we are still waiting for new data and research papers which backup the current scenario.
Luke Peters: Yeah. Okay, great. So let’s go to the next question because this one is about the transmissibility or r-nought, I guess is the big buzz word in the media. And like why is the r-nought so high? And again, we may not know specifically or maybe we do, but maybe in general for some viruses, why would it be so high? This virus I think has a cell membrane. I read that it can live outside of the body for a couple of days, which is relatively long. But what other factors play into transmissibility or r-nought value being higher than say the flu, which I guess is under 1.5. And yeah, I’m just curious your thoughts on that.
Vishal Khairnar: Yes. So let me give a little information about what the r-value is. So to the general audience, the R0 number and the reproduction number R0, what happens is that when a new disease emerges the health organizations starts to seemingly simple number to go to or not. And it is called the basic reproduction number or it is also called R0. So in brief R0 is the average number of people who will catch the disease from single infected person in a population that’s never seen the disease, meaning that basically how many new individuals can single infected person can pass the disease to. And as you mentioned, different viruses have different R0 numbers and currently from the data which we have at this moment the R0 number of the novel coronavirus is between two to 3.4 meaning that each infected person basically potentially can infect between two and 3.4 new individuals.
Vishal Khairnar: And basically it’s seemingly a little bit high compared to what we have on other viruses such as Ebola or Simplex which had the R0 rate up to two or 1.3 respect to it. And this is little bit higher than Ebola and Simplex but there are other viruses like Zika viruses, Measles and HIV which have higher R0 rate compared to the novel coronavirus and the basic reason in my understanding is most of the people who were first encountered with this novel coronavirus, the symptoms are very similar to the flu infection or basically the normal cold or flu infection in general, what we have called it as seasonal flu. And these people were treated for that kind of… basically this treatment for combating seasonal flu. And 80% of the population was basically treated like that. But unfortunately that leads to improvement of their health. And that’s how passed on because initially we failed to recognize it as a novel virus or this was never seen before. And I think that is the main reason, what I think that led to the outbreak of this virus, also many people are infected with this virus.
Luke Peters: Yeah, that makes a lot of sense. It sounds like there’s a little confusion and people don’t know it’s actually something different and they might come in contact with people. So yeah, that makes… Now talking about what’s interesting is some of the pharmaceutical companies have quickly even come to the point where it sounds like they have a vaccine ready for test, which is amazingly quick but at the same time they say that the final commercial use would be for a year. And I know that there has to be some human testing involved obviously, and that can take a couple of months. But what is the most up to date information on the timelines around the vaccine and does it still seem like it’s about a year out and is there any way for these companies to potentially move that quicker for say, healthcare workers or those that are right in the front lines for the coronavirus?
Vishal Khairnar: So, as of today we don’t have a vaccine and so we don’t have a particular vaccine which can combat to… which is against the novel coronavirus but the good news is that a lot of other companies and which I was reading just in the morning, companies for example, Moderna, now the report is that FDA has completed its view of this mRNA-1273 potential vaccine for this coronavirus and now the reports is that FDA has allowed it to post it to clinic and basically they are now posting the vaccine into clinics.
Vishal Khairnar: And this is quite encouraging because I hope that this will result into some kind of vaccine or particular Clexane therapy. But not only Moderna, I would like to tell you other companies which to my knowledge are for example, Gilead, Johnson and Johnson, Vir Biotechnology and few other companies including division NIH are trying to basically test different vaccine in the phase one clinical trial and in some reports I have also read that some companies are also testing if the already available vaccine, which we have called the influenza virus, if they can be also used for the treatment of this virus because this virus share a lot with the influenza virus and that’s why they’re trying to understand or trying to see that if the correlation also can be used for novel coronavirus.
Vishal Khairnar: And these are quite at one stages and I hope as I mentioned that some people might think that it will not be up to one year. So we don’t know. It depends on the success of the vaccine if it goes to the different clinical stages and what kind of the vaccine is. But definitely I can see a bigger picture that we will have vaccine in maybe next three to five months. But that is my calculation depending on the current scenario but it might take a long road or it can take even less time compared to three or five months as well.
Luke Peters: Great. Thanks for that, Vishal, and let’s talk about how the virus enters the body. It’s assumed viruses like the flu that you’d be breathing them in, I don’t know, for some reason I just assume that droplets on surfaces wasn’t the more common transmission method, but it seems in the news that’s how… the hand washing like that really is a common transmission method. And and I guess the question here is, is there a way to proportionately say that more often than not you breathe it in or more often than not it’s because of droplets that you put on your hand and rubbing your eyes and nose and mouth. I’m curious really on that question on the transmission and your thoughts there.
Vishal Khairnar: Yes. I mean one thing for sure is the respiratory system and basically if the virus has to infect the body, it has to come into one of the organs in the respiratory system, either via nose, via eye, or via mouth and should basically lead to respiratory system. And this virus is really similar or the transmission is quite similar to the influenza virus as well and in order to basically answer your question in a more scientific point of view, how does the virus enter the body? So we have to understand a little bit the structure of the novel coronavirus and so far what we know is that like other coronaviruses, the South CoV-2 has four structural protein known as the (S) spike, (E) envelope, (M) membrane, and (N) nucleocapsid proteins and basically these S, E, N and M proteins are the ones which are involved in the entering of the pathogen or in the entering of the virus into the system.
Vishal Khairnar: And specifically the spike protein is responsible for allowing the virus to attach to the membrane of the whole cell. And this is how we know from the current 14 modern experiments, how it is attached and people outsource entire report which shows that, we call it angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE II). It might be too scientific, but it’s just a reset of human cells to use them as a mechanism spell entry. And this is the reason why it is so virulent is that studies have proven that this novel coronavirus has a higher affinity for the human ACE II and they said that is the reason why… might be one of the reason why the virus is high.
Vishal Khairnar: And the common things which you already mentioned about washing hands and other precautions. So yeah, right. So I just meant what we can do is that, there is a very common term which we call it prevention is better than cure. So at this moment we don’t have a vaccine, straight oral vaccine and so what we can do is to take preventive measures and basically what to explain is I would also say the same that washing your hands with hand sanitizer, basically alcohol based hand sanitizers and another way is also washing your hands thoroughly with soap and water. And also try not, and this people should do as often as possible and if you are a worker or if you’re a person who have frequent contacts with basically many people working in a mall or working basically at any organizers which has to deal with contacting with different objects or communicating with different people at the same time, I will highly recommend you take all these frequently measures.
Luke Peters: Okay, that makes sense. And so like you said, the virus attaches has a special protein on it and that can attach to the what you call it the ACE II receptor and that’s-
Vishal Khairnar: Yes.
Luke Peters: Okay, great. And that’s how it enters the body, which is just amazing when people think about these things that are basically, isn’t even alive, it can’t reproduce itself, but it has this special protein that can attach to one of our special proteins on our cells. And now is the ACE II receptor, is that unique to human beings or just unique to mammals or where is that on, so in other words, if dogs had this receptor, could the virus, infect a dog as well?
Vishal Khairnar: So I think I may not have that much information regarding different ACE receptors or regarding ACE receptors in different mammals but what I would say is that, that is most likely that this kind of ACE receptors are also in other mammals because otherwise that would be impossible or that could be quite difficult for virus to jump from host to another host. And that’s really one of the things which I would like to say that the ACE receptors which are very unique, which we have in mammals or humans basically, I think similar or same receptors are also present in the other mammals as well. Otherwise the chances of host jump are very little.
Luke Peters: Yeah, that makes a lot of sense. And then, so now the viruses inside, it goes in through that receptor and now let’s say if you can quickly answer, how does the virus actually cause sickness and is it due to cell death, the virus comes in and I think it replicates, right? It starts replicating itself and then eventually when there’s enough of them, it’ll burst out of the cell, I believe if I’m remembering all the way back to school so, but anyways is it that burst out of the cell and causes cell death. Is that essentially the mode of… on the surface the sickness we see, is that the underlying cause?
Vishal Khairnar: Sure. So not only for this virus infection or any other virus infection or bacteria infections what decides the immune reaction is the lighter load. So let’s go to the virus or basically any foreign antigen, when our body is infected by certain virus, immune cells recognize this antigen as a foreign particle and then it starts initiating immune responses, we call it innate immune responses, which is a first line of defense. And the extent of the immune activation actually depends on the antigen load. So how much viruses or how much antigen is present in the system and the immune activation leads secretion of a lot of antiviral factors in the body and which basically come back the antigen or the virus pathogen and this depends on the antigen goal and how strong the immune system is activated.
Vishal Khairnar: And that differs from person to person as well. So the very important thing, what are the observations, what we understand or what we see from this novel coronavirus is that young people are less than the people who are less than 60 years old or it’s quite less compared to people who are more than 60 years old. It is two or 3.5 or basically two up to 14% in the older population. So we have to understand the viral load or the virus actually sickens our body also depends on how active our immune system is and also the immune system or particular infusion and the hygienic condition or the particle infusion and you are right. Basically, there are different mechanisms about how virus can neutralize in the system. There are different mechanisms that antibodies add to immune cells which are taking care of pathogens at different level and as I mentioned about the… if the cell is infected and then if the cell goes to death that can lead to some strong immune activation.
Vishal Khairnar: So this cell death is basically one of the mechanisms or one of the ways how virus infected cells can be eliminated or basically gets eliminated from our system in order to protect other nearby cells to get infected from one individual infected cell. So that is also one of the mechanism. And there are different ways how the infected cell will get eliminated from that or basically get killed from the system, is there are different APO process and program death related associated with the cell death and so. So it depends on different mechanisms but cell death is one of the mechanism, how our immune system basically gets rid of the pathogen infected or antigen infected cells from the body.
Luke Peters: Good and specifically Vishal is, when somebody dies or somebody has to go to ICU, obviously their respiratory system in this virus it seems like it hits the respiratory system. They’re having trouble breathing, they have to be intubated or have assisted breathing occurring, now I know this is very complicated what’s going on underneath, but is it essentially, is that due to a lot of lung cells dying from the virus or is it due to the immune response causing problems in the lungs because it’s like a massive immune response that is going to have other negative effects? Is it one of the other?
Vishal Khairnar: Yeah, I think it’s more a medical question or the person who can answer this question is maybe a medical doctor. But what I understand from the infection point of view is that basically when there is virus infected to the system and the person is sick, basically the symptoms are related to the respiratory illness or basically problem in breathing. The reason is that maybe the lungs get swollen because of a lot of immune reactions and it cannot function properly. And one of the reason is also getting cough into the lungs and that also causes problems in breathing. So these are different ways how there are basically hindrances in a normal breathing. And I guess that’s one of the reason that lungs are basically interland and that basically causes disturbances into normal breathing. So that would be basically more scientific way to look at it.
Luke Peters: Yes. That is helpful. And I guess we’ve talked a lot about the influenza virus and can you do a quick comparison of the influenza versus the COVID-19, do they both have a cell membrane? I know the novel coronavirus does, I believe, and I think it’s an RNA virus, is one larger than the other, it would be interesting I think for the audience to hear a quick comparison of the two different viruses.
Vishal Khairnar: Yes, sure. So basically what we know about the novel coronavirus is how much is the size of this virus? It’s basically, I suppose 27 to 34 kilo basis. And the size I don’t exact number, I don’t know, I’ve tried to find in the literature I couldn’t find it. I don’t know how long is that for example, whether it’s a nanometer, basically five nanometers or ten nanometers, I don’t have an idea about that, but for sure we have the molecular structure and we know that it’s molecular size is 27 to 34 kilo basis. And for a common flu, or basically there are different types of influenza, even we talk about the common flu, it’s an influenza A virus. Basically this virus also has… what’s different is that there are several subtypes and label according to an H number for the type of the hemagglutinin and N number for the type of neuraminidase in the influenza A viruses. And so far there are 18 different H antigens from H1 to H18 and 11 different N antigens from N1 to N11 for the influenza viruses.
Vishal Khairnar: And basically these viruses are 80 to 120 nanometers in diameter. And because it’s a wide variety of combination that can happen because of mutations as well, we have different… I was reading there up to 198 possibilities which can come up with common influenza viruses. But let’s go to very general similarities between this virus and flu is that, the COVID-19, the coronavirus CoV-2 and the flu is both cause cough, body ache, fatigue, sometimes vomiting and diarrhea and it can be mild or severe or even fatal in rare cases.
Vishal Khairnar: And sometimes more complications in the immune system can also result in the pneumonia of the infection of these viruses and the transmission mode of infection is that both can spread from person to person through cough in the air basically from the infected person coughing, sneezing or talking. And a possible difference between COVID-19 might be spread to the airborne road. So for the infection, the novel coronavirus you have to get the virus basically into your respiratory system. And we still don’t know that it is possible to get this virus through airborne road but so far from the literature, the possibility is quite low and the flu can be spread by an infected person for several days before their symptoms appear. And also I understand from the literature which is there for novel coronavirus is that even though incubation period is between two to 14 days, it doesn’t necessarily mean that in this incubation period that particular individual cannot infect other healthy patients.
Vishal Khairnar: So basically both in this case are similar for the spread of the disease and the major difference, what is the major difference is just the different stents, the COVID-19 is caused by novel 2019 coronavirus which is definitely different from previous coronaviruses and it is also called coronavirus as we already talked about this, a lot of SARS we had, flu is caused by any of the several different types and stents of influenza viruses which I briefly touched in the previous question. So there are very basic differences between different stents, but they belong to the same family.
Vishal Khairnar: And one of the things I want to mention is that both are RNA viruses and the mutation in RNA viruses tend to be high but as we did not encounter a second outbreak from the 2002 SARS virus, I would highly doubt that this virus will get mutated and then will come back again because from 2003 until 2020, we didn’t get a second outbreak of the SARS virus. So I would at least guess that is highly unlikely that this virus will mutate and then will come back. But definitely there are chances that maybe new stent completely different from what we already know from the first month of this novel coronavirus there might be another stent jumping in near future.
Luke Peters: Yeah. And I sound like a famous epidemiologist and he said that he thought he made a big remark, but that 40% of the world’s population will end up getting this virus, just because of the r-nought. But your point, if it can’t mutate, I think a lot of folks are worried about it being similar to the flu where every year you’ve got a new outbreak of this. But it’s different because it’s a new flu virus every year. And so I think like you said, they’re both RNA viruses, but in this case hopefully this virus, we don’t have a new version every single year. So we just have to deal with it or hopefully a vaccine is created. But yeah, thanks for that comparison and that information.
Luke Peters: And last I read and I’ve looked at this a little bit just because it’s important, is that the virus can live for around five days in optimal condition outside the body. Have you heard anything different? And the reason I ask is you see governments spraying subways and they’re taking all these precautions with the virus on the ground or maybe it’s on hard surfaces and if there’s enough of a viral load it can kind of survive for a longer period of time. But is this virus any different than others as far as being able to survive longer outside of the host?
Vishal Khairnar: So I think that’s true, that under normal conditions or optimum conditions this virus can live up to five days and we’re still waiting for the research, waiting for the new data which backup it strongly, but that’s true. And basically my understanding is that why government officials are basically taking measures by maybe decontaminating the subways or places for public gathering. One of the reason is that subway is mainly the underground trench, when you go there they’re humid in the nature and just the winter season is going on. And most of the parts of the world temperature is quite low. So there is a lot of moisture, humidity in the air and the temperature is not that high. So one of the things also people think or believe that unlike last SARS virus outbreak, that when the temperature rises the rising temperature might potentially also reduce the half-life of the virus on the surface or physically in the form of droplets.
Vishal Khairnar: But the basic reason why to do or decontaminate places are basically reduce the chances of the virus to be present there for a longer time. And this actually, the main reason is that the humidity and temperature which prolongs half-life of the virus and so with airports or malls basically these are the places where you have a lot people at one point present while coming for meeting or while doing or buying or shopping. So these things are just preliminary measures which are taken to destroy the virus spread from one person to another person in the form of… if unintentionally people touch a surface and then basically with the hand touching their mouth, nose or eye that can basically potentially can also enter their respiratory tract or respiratory system. So this is one of the major… and I also I’ve done a lot of reports which also hint in that direction that a rise in temperature might also lead to the reduction in the half-life of this virus as well.
Luke Peters: Well, that would be good news here in America with summer coming. So well a couple months away from that. And I think people are hoping that’ll be the case. So I guess we’re gonna find out in a couple of months. So-
Vishal Khairnar: People are hoping, because we already experienced a similar thing in the last outbreak when in the winter season it was spreading quite fast and then the summer season the rate of infections reduced. And this is maybe people are thinking that might be the case also with this virus but we will have to see and we will have to maybe see in future how it goes.
Luke Peters: Yeah. That makes a lot of sense. Great. Well, last question is, quickly what are your thoughts as a trained scientist, when you see trade shows being canceled, it seems like extreme caution. And then unfortunately there seems to be a little bit of panic and hysteria in the public but at the same time people are dying from this virus and I’m definitely not underestimate that because the death rate seems to be like more than 20 times higher than a flu. And when you put it in that perspective, if it went through 40% of the population, it could really be devastating. And so I can understand both sides, but is there… in the scientific community, do they think that it, what’s the general thought when they see trade shows and travel and everything being canceled.
Vishal Khairnar: Yeah. So you’re right that in certain cases that trade shows or exhibitions are canceled. And I was listening to one of the documentary and I also realized that the auto export in Geneva was also canceled and also major immunology conference in Japan that was also canceled, but I think for the general audience what I would recommend is that of course, as I said prevention is better than cure. So if you can, then definitely avoid traveling to, first of all on my list would be traveling to places which have more coronavirus cases basically mainly in China South Korea, Iran, Italy and in this country as well at this moment cases are high and the chances that there might be more people who are already infected, but the virus is just in incubation period and we will see how it goes.
Vishal Khairnar: But first thing would be try to avoid traveling if that is possible. Second thing is that what I would suggest is to quarantine yourself if you can. Basically what happens is that symptoms of this viral infection are very similar to flu. And I would highly recommend people that if they have similar symptoms, which they think they are just a common flu symptoms, at this moment I would highly encourage to basically go to the hospital and show yourself to a physician or a doctor and get to confirm that you are not one of those who catch the coronavirus. So I would highly recommend that. Second would be hand washing and decontamination of the surfaces, basically that’s what we already talked about at the beginning that these two preventive measures.
Vishal Khairnar: And the public gatherings basically try to avoid cases where you have you have to encounter or basically you have to be with a lot of people. And if you can avoid basically certain things like contact with body fluids or basically keep distance if someone is sneezing or coughing around you. So I would highly recommend to keep yourself a bit distance from people and for general population also to get the common education would be very important that if you are sneezing or coughing, use napkins or tissues. Basically tried to minimize the exposure of your cough or sneeze to nearby population. So that is some things and simple hygiene measures would impact a lot on day to day basis. And last but not least would be that basically try, don’t take it lightly. Don’t think that this is just a common cold or flu symptoms. I would highly encourage people if they see symptoms try to consult a doctor as soon as possible because that’s one of the best things you can do to protect yourself and your family or your relatives living nearby to you.
Luke Peters: All right. Well thanks for all that advice and especially for joining me on the page one podcast today with this special update on the coronavirus and appreciate Vishal all your information and details about the virus. And hopefully the listeners got some unique information today. Maybe something different than you guys have heard on the regular news outlets. So want to thank you again for joining us. Is there a best place if listeners might want to reach out and ask a question, is there best to connect on LinkedIn or anywhere else that you would prefer to send them?
Vishal Khairnar: Yes, I’m active on social via LinkedIn, if you can find me with LinkedIn and I would be happy if you can put my information or contact information on LinkedIn. Share my LinkedIn link so that people can ask for comment or follow up all this literature, basically information and if there’s any concern people can reach out to you or me directly at any time point and at the end of the session, I will also like to tag also all this information, basically where I collected from, all the numbers of novel coronavirus and the mortality rate or number of deaths basically coming from the Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases by Johns Hopkins CSSE.
Vishal Khairnar: And if people want to stay updated with this information, there is a very nice platform developed by John Hopkins CSSE you can put in Google and basically that can lead you to a site where you can track all this information. They have made it very nice way that the confirmed cases, how the virus is spreading, and confirmed number of deaths and number of people recovering. And also I would encourage to just… simply you can go on Google or any social media site type to access the WHO site, World Health Organization site and if you just put WHO coronavirus, there will a lot of pages which will direct you to the WHO site and dead is also nice information and quite updated information available.
Vishal Khairnar: So I would highly encourage people and basically I will also tag at the end of my presentation or end of our talk, these two or three resources Johns Hopkins CSSE website, WHO official website and some of the literatures from the leading journals like Nature and Cell which I took some information from. So these are the information sources for myself and as well as for common people to have access and these are three of course. So with this novel virus, the good thing is that many journals, many research publication house by looking at it as a public health concern. They have provided all the related information quite free to access.
Luke Peters: Okay. Well great. Thanks for that Vishal and absolutely in the show notes we’ll have your LinkedIn and your full name, so spelled out so the listeners can contact you and appreciate listing those resources. So we have that for the audience and that’ll end up in the show notes.
Vishal Khairnar: Thank you.
Luke Peters: And again, I just want to thank everybody for listening to this episode of the page one podcast sponsored by Retail Band. You can contact me on LinkedIn or at email@example.com. Thanks for making it through this podcast. We appreciate all of your comments and especially your reviews, and we’ll catch you guys on the next podcast.
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